Glossary L-O

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L band is a fequency range between 390MHz and 1.55GHz which is used for satellite communications and for terrestrial communications between satellite equipment.


Longitude is the angular distance on the earth's surface, measured east or west from the prime meridian at Greenwich, England, to the meridian passing through a position, expressed in degrees (or hours), minutes, and seconds. Satellites in geostationary orbit are position in orbital slots based on the longitude of the orbital position. Seattle WA is at 122 degrees west longitude. A satellite positioned at 121 longitude would be located 1 degree east of due south. A location at 110 degrees longitude would point a dish approximately 11 degrees east of their due south to receive the same satellite.


The Low Noise Block (LNB) is the device located on the front arm of the Satellite Dish. The LNB receives the bounced satellite signals from the dish reflector, amplifies the weak signal and lowers the signal frequency to a frequency capable of traveling down a coax cable. Their are several types of LNB, with most only working on a specific dish type. A dual LNB can accommodate up to two satellite receivers or one Trio / Ultimate TV receiver. By using a Matrix switch you can add more then two receivers to a dual LNB. If you are using a Multi-Satellite dish you will need to use a Multi-satellite switch capable of handling the number of receivers you wish to use. Read about Dish Network LNB's and DirecTV LNB's.



An LNBF is an LNB with an integrated feedhorn. Most LNB's in use today are actually LNBF's.


Multiple Dwelling Unit, includes apartments, condominiums and town houses.


MPEG2 is a video compression method. Compression is used to combine several programs into one satellite transponder. MPEG2 is also used to compress video for internet use. MPEG2 will be used for many years more as MPEG4 is slowly introduced into the market,


Multi-satellite dish: Satellite program providers maintain broadcast satellites in multiple orbit locations to provide wider signal coverage and greater programming variety. In order to receive programming that extends beyond the satellite provider's "core" programming — examples include HDTV programs, and local channels in many areas — it's often necessary for consumers to use a multi-satellite system, such as the DirecTV Oval Dish or DISH Networks DISH 500.


Multi-satellite switch:
A satellite receiver only has one input connection. To accommodate the Multi-Sat dishes offered by DirecTV and DISH Network, you must use a Multi-sat switch. Each systems uses a different type of switch. You can not intermix DirecTV and DISH Network switches. DirecTV controls a multi-sat switch with a 22kHz signal and DISH Network use a digital signal to communicate with their switches. Cable length is critical when using DISH Network switches. Most newer DISH Network systems come with a Twin 500 or a Quad for larger jobs. These are LNBF's with built in switches. Some oval dish systems for DirecTV come with a switch built in to the dish it self.


Must Carry:
The FCC has established a condition that if a satellite service provider is going to carry one local network in a specific market place or DMA then they must carry all local networks in that market place. Must carry became effective at the beginning of 2002.


National Standards and Testing Program(NSTP):
The NSTP is a program created to provide basic installation training to satellite TV install technicians. The program is best know as SBCA certification, due the fact that the Satellite Broadcasting and Communication Association created and administers the NSTP. The program started in late 2001 and is a requirement now by most major companies. The NSTP has two levels for residential work. Level 1 is for basic single receiver applications and level 2 is for multi-receiver applications. The NSTP has undergone severe criticism by the satellite industry for being to easy, to expensive to get and in general a meaningless certification. While all serious installers should be certified by the end of 2002, being certified does not mean a install technician knows more then the most basic concepts of how to install.

National Television Standards Committee A video standard established by the United States (RCA/NBC} and adopted by numerous other countries.

National Rural Telecommunications Cooperative (NRTC):
The organization that provides telecommunications services to rural electric and rural telephone cooperatives. If you live in a NRTC district you cannot use DirecTV services unless you go through your local NRTC office. Most of the DirecTV exclusive rights were sold to Pegasus and therefore you must go to Pegasus to receiver DirecTV programming. Even thought it is called Pegasus, it is DirecTV programming resold by Pegasus.

Over the Air. This is the acronym commonly used to describe standard television broadcast signals received by a rooftop antenna.

Same as OTA

Orbital Slots:
Refers to the location of satellites around the globe. Their are 6 main slots used for DBS TV. Echostar uses 61.5, 110. 119, 129 and 148 for their satellite TV services. DirecTV uses 101, 110 and 119 for their satellite TV service. A DISH 500 systems can receive signals from 119 and 110 simultaneously. To receive DISH programming from 61.5, 129 or 148 you will need a second dish. DirecTV uses a Oval dish to receive signals from 101, 110 and 119. More

Oval Dish:
Term used by DirecTV and DirecTV receivers to indicate you are using a multi-sat dish.



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